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With the release of HPE CSI Driver for Kubernetes 1.2.0, a new set of features has been made available as a technology preview, including an NFS Server Provisioner and a Pod Monitor. The motivation behind including these new features is explored in the official announcement – Tech preview: Network File System Server Provisioner for HPE CSI Driver for Kubernetes. In this blog post, I’ll demonstrate how to put these features to good use!
Note: The features and capabilities showcased within this blog are considered beta and subject to change. Do not use for production workloads until the official general availability release. Currently on target for version 1.3.0 of the HPE CSI Driver for Kubernetes.
This tutorial assumes version 1.2.0 or later of the HPE CSI Driver for Kubernetes has been installed with a functioning backend, such as HPE Nimble Storage, HPE Primera or HPE 3PAR. The CSI driver is available as a Helm chart or Operator.
The Container Storage Providers supported by the HPE CSI Driver are block storage solutions that serve volumes over either iSCSI or Fibre Channel. Inherently, traditional filesystems on these volumes are either XFS, ext3/4 or Btrfs. In other words, non-clustered filesystems that only allow a single host at time to access the volumes. With that limitation in mind, the HPE CSI Driver will only support
PersistentVolumeClaims (PVCs) natively. In an effort to serve multiple
Pods across multiple Kubernetes worker nodes, the user would have to be creative by either running Rook or the upstream NFS server provisioner to provide what is called
ReadWriteMany (RWX) and
ReadOnlyMany (ROX) access modes.
In an effort to simplify deployment, Hewlett Packard Enterprise opted to create a solution that is seamless for the HPE CSI Driver users and administrators. More information about the design and the motivation behind it can be found in the tech preview blog post.
Enable the NFS Server Provisioner
Enabling the NFS Server Provisioner for PVCs is straightforward, as it’s controlled by the
nfsResources parameter. What’s important to understand is that, once
nfsResources have been enabled on a
StorageClass, all PVCs are subject to be served by a NFS server setup by the NFS Server Provisioner, including RWO.
Note: All API objects declarations below assumes
kubectl create -f-, paste the YAML stanza and hit CTRL-D on a new line after pasting.
This is the shipping default
--- apiVersion: storage.k8s.io/v1 kind: StorageClass metadata: annotations: storageclass.kubernetes.io/is-default-class: "true" name: hpe-standard provisioner: csi.hpe.com parameters: csi.storage.k8s.io/controller-expand-secret-name: nimble-secret csi.storage.k8s.io/controller-expand-secret-namespace: kube-system csi.storage.k8s.io/controller-publish-secret-name: nimble-secret csi.storage.k8s.io/controller-publish-secret-namespace: kube-system csi.storage.k8s.io/node-publish-secret-name: nimble-secret csi.storage.k8s.io/node-publish-secret-namespace: kube-system csi.storage.k8s.io/node-stage-secret-name: nimble-secret csi.storage.k8s.io/node-stage-secret-namespace: kube-system csi.storage.k8s.io/provisioner-secret-name: nimble-secret csi.storage.k8s.io/provisioner-secret-namespace: kube-system description: Volume created by the HPE CSI Driver for Kubernetes accessProtocol: iscsi csi.storage.k8s.io/fstype: xfs nfsResources: "true" reclaimPolicy: Delete allowVolumeExpansion: true
Creating an RWX claim is as simple as it can be.
--- apiVersion: v1 kind: PersistentVolumeClaim metadata: name: my-rwx-pvc spec: accessModes: - ReadWriteMany resources: requests: storage: 32Gi
It’s now possible to create a
Deployment with multiple replicas to access the claim.
--- apiVersion: apps/v1 kind: Deployment metadata: name: my-app labels: app: my-app spec: replicas: 5 selector: matchLabels: app: my-app template: metadata: labels: app: my-app spec: containers: - image: datamattsson/my-app name: my-app volumeMounts: - name: my-app mountPath: /data volumes: - name: my-app persistentVolumeClaim: claimName: my-rwx-pvc
Once deployed and scaled, it should look like what you see below.
$ kubectl get pods -o wide NAME READY STATUS RESTARTS AGE IP NODE my-app-6bfbb6f87f-5gr8k 1/1 Running 0 37s 10.45.0.2 tme-lnx-worker4 my-app-6bfbb6f87f-rzn64 1/1 Running 0 37s 10.36.0.2 tme-lnx-worker1 my-app-6bfbb6f87f-tk4vx 1/1 Running 0 37s 10.44.0.3 tme-lnx-worker2 my-app-6bfbb6f87f-vkqrc 1/1 Running 0 37s 10.44.0.2 tme-lnx-worker2 my-app-6bfbb6f87f-z87p2 1/1 Running 0 37s 10.44.0.1 tme-lnx-worker2
Pro tip: Creating a ROX claim requires the
Podto mount the claim read-only. Please check the documentation on the HPE Storage Container Orchestrator Documentation (SCOD) for more details.
Inspecting the actual NFS Deployment
While all parts of both the NFS client and server are being deployed transparently for the user, it is important to understand what actually end up running on the Kubernetes cluster. By default, each PVC creates a single replica
Service, and a RWO PVC that maps to a supported backend. The NFS mount for the Pods accessing the claim is being taken care of by the HPE CSI Driver.
Where the NFS servers gets deployed is controlled by the
nfsNamespace parameter. The default is "hpe-nfs".
Object naming conventions and other diagnostics are available on SCOD.
User control of the NFS server
Sometimes it’s desired to have a single default
StorageClass on the cluster for all access mode needs. This is possible but requires non-portable PVCs and a tweak to the
allowOverrides and omitting
Another important detail is that the NFS server needs to be deployed in the same Namespace as the requesting claim to allow users to create CSI snapshots and clones.
--- apiVersion: storage.k8s.io/v1 kind: StorageClass metadata: annotations: storageclass.kubernetes.io/is-default-class: "true" name: hpe-standard provisioner: csi.hpe.com parameters: csi.storage.k8s.io/controller-expand-secret-name: nimble-secret csi.storage.k8s.io/controller-expand-secret-namespace: kube-system csi.storage.k8s.io/controller-publish-secret-name: nimble-secret csi.storage.k8s.io/controller-publish-secret-namespace: kube-system csi.storage.k8s.io/node-publish-secret-name: nimble-secret csi.storage.k8s.io/node-publish-secret-namespace: kube-system csi.storage.k8s.io/node-stage-secret-name: nimble-secret csi.storage.k8s.io/node-stage-secret-namespace: kube-system csi.storage.k8s.io/provisioner-secret-name: nimble-secret csi.storage.k8s.io/provisioner-secret-namespace: kube-system description: Volume created by the HPE CSI Driver for Kubernetes accessProtocol: iscsi csi.storage.k8s.io/fstype: xfs allowOverrides: nfsResources,nfsNamespace reclaimPolicy: Delete allowVolumeExpansion: true
By annotating the PVC, a user can request the NFS Server Provisioner to serve the claim. The user can also deploy the server in the
Namespace requesting the claim.
--- apiVersion: v1 kind: PersistentVolumeClaim metadata: name: my-other-rwx-pvc annotations: csi.hpe.com/nfsResources: "true" csi.hpe.com/nfsNamespace: default spec: accessModes: - ReadWriteMany resources: requests: storage: 32Gi
Namespace where the claim was created, we may observe the API objects that were created.
$ kubectl get configmap,deploy,pvc,service -o name configmap/hpe-nfs-config deployment.apps/hpe-nfs-053b6374-db9c-46c9-94d9-d3c3e59a55e4 persistentvolumeclaim/hpe-nfs-053b6374-db9c-46c9-94d9-d3c3e59a55e4 persistentvolumeclaim/my-other-rwx-pvc service/hpe-nfs-053b6374-db9c-46c9-94d9-d3c3e59a55e4
The user may now use the requesting claim as a
dataSource in a new claim to clone it. For a comprehensive tutorial on how to use CSI snapshots and clones, check out this previous blog post: HPE CSI Driver for Kubernetes: Snapshots, Clones and Volume Expansion
The tech preview is currently hardcoded to allow twenty running NFS servers per worker node in the cluster. Request limits are also unrestricted. It’s encouraged to tinker with the request limits during the tech preview as the engineering team is looking for real world guidance. In the GA release, the request limits will be not be unrestricted. We know that the NFS server has around 150MiB memory foot print coming up cold and it all comes around to how much buffer cache you want to put aside for servicing cached read requests. We also know the NFS server will consume quite a lot of CPU cycles during load tests.
These are the
StorageClass parameters that control the request limits:
- nfsResourceLimitsCpuM: Specify CPU limits for the server
Deploymentin milli CPU. Default: no limits applied. Example: "500m"
- nfsResourceLimitsMemoryMi: Specify memory limits (in megabytes) for the server
Deployment. Default: no limits applied. Example: "500Mi"
It’s also possible to fine tune the NFS server itself. The
ConfigMap "hpe-nfs-config" in the
Namespace where the server is deployed represents the running server configuration. Samples can be found in the NFS-Ganesha GitHub repo.
The NFS client mount options are also tunable, this could be useful for making tweaks to fit a certain best practice for running a particular application over NFS. Do note that NFSv4 is the only version supported at this time.
- nfsMountOptions: Customize NFS mount options for the
Podsto the server
Deployment. Default: "nolock, hard,vers=4"
Automatic recovery with the Pod Monitor
In an effort to ensure the NFS servers are kept alive, HPE introduced a customer facing feature called Pod Monitor. It monitors
Pods on the cluster with the label
monitored-by: hpe-csi. It checks the status of the
Pod on 30 second intervals (tunable) and watches for the
NodeLost transition. It also verifies that the node is indeed unreachable and effectively deletes the
VolumeAttachments to let Kubernetes reschedule the
Pod on a healthy node.
The Pod Monitor is necessary because the defaults in Kubernetes used to perform automatic recovery for node outages are too extreme and would stall workloads running over 10 minutes to recover. And, there would still be problems with the
VolumeAttachment, as CSI won’t forcefully remove it because, for all it knows, the volume is still mounted on the node that became isolated. As the CSPs supported by the HPE CSI Driver strip the initiator groups from a volume before applying the new ones, split brain would never happen. There might be dirty buffers, but modern filesystems recover gracefully and if there’s an application level corruption, there should be backups or at least snapshots of the volume to recover from.
Read more about the Pod Monitor on SCOD as it’s possible to apply it to any workload backed by a HPE CSI Driver volume.
Please take the NFS Server Provisioner and Pod Monitor for a spin if you get the chance. We value your feedback and we keep all channels of communication open for this purpose. If you’re an HPE employee, join our Slack community at hpedev.slack.com. If you’re not an employee, sign up at slack.hpedev.io first. It’s also possible to report issues through GitHub. Beta feedback, questions and concerns may also be raised through a regular support ticket. Please check with your HPE representative of the respective storage backend on how to log a support case.
- HPE CSI Driver for Kubernetes Helm Chart
- HPE CSI Operator on OperatorHub.io
- Read the Tech Preview announcement blog COMING SOON!
- Visit HPE Storage Container Orchestrator Documentation (SCOD)
- HPE CSI Driver source code on GitHub
- Browse the CSP specification if you want to include your platform with the HPE CSI Driver
Until my next blog post, happy containerizing!